Luyện Nghe VOA: Will Eating Less Help You Live Longer?

Will Eating Less Help You Live Longer?

From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle report.
If you want to (1)________________, you might want to eat less. Researchers in the United States say eating less can slow the aging process of cells in the body.
This finding is good news – if you are a mouse. The researchers (2)_________________, not people.
John Price is a (3)__________________ at Brigham Young University in the U.S. state of Utah.
He and other researchers studied two groups of mice. One group was able to eat as much as it wanted. The researchers (4)_______________ what the other animals in the other group ate. Their diet had 35 percent fewer calories than the first group of mice.
Price says the mice with the diet restrictions were “more energetic and suffered (5)_________________.” They were not just living longer, they seemed to stay younger for a longer period of time.
Price says that when you restrict calories (in mice), there is a (6)_________________ in lifespan – the average age of the animal. He and his team found that calorie “restriction caused real biochemical changes that slowed down the rate of aging."
But how?
The researchers found that fewer calories (7)_________________ mechanism in cells called ribosomes. Price explains that ribosomes are responsible for making important proteins in the cells. But with fewer calories, they slow down. This gives the cells more time to (8)______________.
The University of Utah (9)______________ ribosomes use from 10 to 20 percent of the cell's energy to make those proteins.
In a (10)________________ on the study, Price wrote that "because of this, it is impractical to destroy an entire ribosome” when it starts to break down.
However, “repairing individual parts of the ribosome on a regular basis enables ribosomes to (11)________________ high quality proteins for longer than they would otherwise. This top quality production, in turn, keeps cells and the entire body functioning well."
Price used automobiles to explain how ribosomes repair themselves. He said that a “ribosome is a very (12)________________,” like a car.
Ribosomes, likes cars, need “(13)________________ to replace the parts that wear out the fastest. When tires wear out,” (14)______________, “you don't throw the whole car away and buy” a new one. It costs less to replace the old tires.
Earlier studies have suggested a link between calorie restrictions and slowed aging. However, this is first to show how the ribosomes can (15)_________________.
Price noted calorie restriction as a way to slow aging (16)______________ in humans. But he adds that the main finding for people is the "the importance of taking care of our bodies."
"Food,” he said, “isn't just material (17)_________________ -- it's a signal that tells our body and cells how to respond.”
Price said the findings help to explain how exactly our bodies age. And this may “help us make more (18)________________ about what we eat."
I’m Anna Matteo.
This story first appeared on Anna Matteo adapted the report for Learning English. George Grow was the editor.
See how well you understand the story by taking this reading quiz.

Words in This Story

calorie – n. an amount of food having an energy-producing value of one large calorie
biochemical – adj. represented by, produced by, or involving chemical reactions in living organisms
mechanism – n. a process or system that is used to produce a result
impractical – adj. not easy to do or use
regular – adj. happening or done very often
basis – n. a fixed method or system for doing something
functioning – v. to work or operate

maintenance – n. the act of keeping property or equipment in good condition by making repairs or correcting problems
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